Duck market in Poland

The poultry sector is one of the most important sections of the domestic agricultural production, and since 2014 Poland has been the largest producer of poultry in the European Union.

small ducklings with duck mother on the grass
Beeld: ©Pexels

The structure of the domestic production and the export are dominated by chickens and turkeys, but the production of ducks is also becoming increasingly important. A large part of the domestic production of ducks is exported, first of all to the EU countries. Also, the demand from domestic consumers for both duck meat and duck-based food products is growing.

In 2021, Poland was the third producer of ducks in the European Union after France and Hungary, with the share of 16% in EU production. The dominant breed of ducks bred in Poland is the Pekin breed. Ducks of this breed are characterised by a short broiler production cycle, not very high nutritional requirements and significant health and high meat content.

ducks export value
Beeld: ©Polish food

The growing interest of consumers in duck meat results from its culinary and health properties. Duck meat is juicy and tender. It contains large amounts of easily digestible protein and is light. The health properties of duck meat also result from the content of vitamins from group B, A and E. Duck meat is also rich in micro- and macronutrients and is a source of monounsaturated fatty acids, which has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system.

The production of ducks in Poland in the years 2013–2020 was characterised by a significant growth rate. In 2021, the population of ducks decreased and, according to Polish Central Statistical Office, amounted to 5.3 million head when compared to 6.4 million head in 2020, which was caused by the epizootic situation related to the occurrence of the avian influenza virus and the need to eradicate flocks. Despite the recorded decrease, the population of duck in 2021 was twice as high as in 2012. In regional terms, the production of ducks is concentrated mainly

  • in the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship (1.9 million head; 36% of the domestic production volume) and
  • in the Łódzkie Voivodeship (1.1 million head; 22%).
ducs export volume
Beeld: ©Polish food

The foreign sale of duck meat from Poland is characterised by a constant upward trend in terms of revenues obtained. According to the Ministry of Finance data, in the years 2012–2021 the value of foreign sale of duck meat increased from EUR 6 million to EUR 61 million, i.e. more than 10 times. In 2022, the upward trend in export was continued. In the period from January to November 2022, domestic entrepreneurs sold abroad 33 thousand tonnes of duck meat worth EUR 124 million when compared to 24 thousand tonnes for EUR 56 million obtained in the same period of 2021.

Polish duck meat goes mostly to the tables of consumers in the European Union. In 2021, about 84% of export revenues were generated by the sale to the EU countries, and 14% – to the United Kingdom. In the EU market in 2021, the major customer of Polish duck meat was definitely Germany (EUR 26 million; share of 42% in the Polish export). The smaller share was that of:

  • Denmark (EUR 5 million; 8%),
  • the Czech Republic and
  • Lithuania (EUR 3 million each; 5% each), as well as
  • France and Romania (more than EUR 2 million each; 4% each).

Outside the European Union, the largest revenues were obtained from the sale of duck meat to the United Kingdom (EUR 8 million; 14%).

duck export destinations
Beeld: ©Polish food

In the period from January to November 2022, the export value of this product range exceeded EUR 124 million, of which the sale to the EU amounted to EUR 108 million, accounting for 87% of revenues. This product range was mainly exported to

  • Germany (EUR 49 million; share of 39% in the Polish export value),
  • Denmark (EUR 9 million; 7%),
  • France and Spain (about EUR 8 million each; 7% and 6%, respectively) and
  • the Czech Republic (EUR 7 million; 6%).

Outside the EU, the sale to the United Kingdom generated the highest revenues (EUR 15 million; 12%).

The import of duck meat into Poland is low. In the years 2012–2021, expenditure for this purpose ranged from EUR 0.5 million to EUR 1.2 million. In 2021, this product range was imported into Poland mainly from Hungary (EUR 0.4 million; share of 38% in the Polish import), Germany (EUR 0.3 million; 32%) and France (EUR 0.2 million; 26%). In the period from January to November 2022, the import value of duck meat to Poland amounted to more than EUR 0.7 million. This product range was imported mainly from Hungary and German.

Source: Polish food